Procedure: Intravenous Cannulation

Intravenous (IV) cannulation is a common medical procedure used to administer fluids, medication, or nutrition directly into a patient’s bloodstream. IV cannulation is performed by healthcare professionals, such as nurses or doctors, with advanced training in venipuncture.

Step 1: Preparation

Before starting the IV cannulation, gather all the necessary equipment, including sterile gloves, antiseptic solution, an IV catheter, a tourniquet, transparent dressing, and a securement device. Ensure proper hand hygiene by washing hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Step 2: Patient Assessment and Informed Consent

Assess the patient’s medical history, current health condition, and any specific needs related to IV therapy. Explain the procedure to the patient, including its benefits, risks, and possible alternatives. Obtain informed consent from the patient or their legal guardian.

Step 3: Patient Positioning

Position the patient comfortably, usually lying or sitting with the arm extended and supported. Select an appropriate site for cannulation, typically the dorsal hand veins, forearm veins, or antecubital fossa. Ensure good lighting and expose the chosen site.

Step 4: Tourniquet Application

Apply a tourniquet above the selected cannulation site to facilitate vein visibility and palpation. Make sure the tourniquet is tight enough to occlude venous blood flow while still allowing arterial flow.

Step 5: Vein Selection and Cleaning

Palpate the veins to identify the most suitable one for cannulation. Clean the area with an antiseptic solution in a circular motion, starting from the center and moving outward. Allow the antiseptic to dry before proceeding.

Step 6: Insertion of IV Catheter

Hold the IV catheter with the bevel facing up at a 10-30 degree angle to the skin. Advance the catheter slowly into the vein while stabilizing the surrounding tissues with your non-dominant hand. Once blood return is observed, advance the catheter a little further and release the tourniquet.

Step 7: Securing the IV Catheter

Once the catheter is in place and blood return is confirmed, secure it by applying a transparent dressing and a securement device. This helps to prevent accidental dislodgement of the catheter.

Step 8: Documentation and Maintenance

Record the date, time, site, size of the catheter, and any related observations in the patient’s medical record. Regularly monitor the IV site for signs of complications and follow the institution’s guidelines for catheter maintenance, flushing, and removal.

Step 9: Patient Education

Explain the expected sensations the patient may experience during IV therapy, such as coolness or a mild burning sensation. Educate the patient and caregivers on proper care of the IV site, signs of infection, and steps to take if any complications arise.

Step 10: Comfort and Safety

Ensure the patient’s comfort by providing appropriate pain management, adjusting the position of the IV line, and considering patient preferences. Adhere to strict infection control practices to minimize the risk of healthcare-associated infections.

This comprehensive guide outlines the step-by-step procedure for successful IV cannulation. By following these guidelines, healthcare professionals can ensure both patient comfort and safety during IV therapy.

Leave a Comment